Metal AMS
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5 - Digital process chains for powder and wire-based 3D DED processes


DED (Directed Energy Deposition) is a metal additive manufacturing technology that is capable to produce high quality 3D objects. In addition to that, it is widely used for the repair of damaged parts or for the deposition of wear resistant coatings. DED machines are usually based on a cartesian kinematic system or on articulated robots. In both cases, however, 3D parts pose a special challenge as they require time-consuming generation of the CNC or robot programs. For this reason, digital process chains that reduce manual programming requirements are crucial for the cost-efficient use of DED technologies. An essential component is a software-supported, automatic generation of the machine tool paths based on CAD data. In some cases, however, such data are not available. In these cases, 3D models can be generated from 3D scans that are performed directly in the DED machine. We have investigated several different use cases. The first one is suited for powder-based DED coatings or repair processes for 3D parts that come without any CAD data. In this case, scan data is automatically processed, converted into high-quality STL models and visualized on a PC. These models then serve as the basis for automatic tool path planning, for which the user defines the necessary parameters and boundary conditions with just a few inputs. After generating the tool paths and a simulation, CNC or robot code can be generated and executed directly. In a similar manner, 3D geometries can be applied to existing 3D components. For this purpose, target geometries from CAD models are added to the models generated from the scans. Tool paths are then automatically calculated for the resulting differential volumes. In addition to powder-based processes, we have studied wire-based DED processes. Such processes benefit from lower material cost compared to powder-based processes; however, they also create some additional challenges with respect to the machine program generation. As a solution, we have developed adapted software modules that are able to cope with these challenges. Finally, we have been able to build large 3D structures directly from CAD data.


LUNOVU GmbH, Aachen, Germany

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5 - Digital process chains for powder and wire-based 3D DED processes



5:40 pm -6:00 pm


Room 6